Can Exercise Cut Your Risk of Dementia?. Strong bodies and strong minds go together. A recent study suggests that regular exercise can strengthen the brain and may cut your risk of cognitive decline and dementia down the road. To determine how physical fitness affects brain health, researchers from Stanford University School of Medicine studied the medical records of 6,104 older patients in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs health system. They found that the more vigorously the patients exercised, the lower their risk of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, or other cognitive problems years later. The findings were published in February 2017 in Mayo Clinic Proceedings. The patients, average age 60 and nearly all men, were asked to run on a treadmill for as long as they could. Those who scored less than 6 metabolic equivalents on their treadmill test had a more than fourfold greater risk of cognitive impairment than those with scores higher than 12. Exercise fortifies the brain by directing blood flow and oxygen to the areas that control memory and decision-making, and distributes peptides and proteins that help produce neurons. “But even as little as 30 minutes of moderate levels of exercise a day can make a difference in overall brain health.”
As you look in the mirror in the morning, you see that inevitable fate has struck: your first gray hair! Whether you are in your 20s or your 50s, gray hair catches up with all of us eventually.
During hair growth, melanocytes make pigment and pass it to hair progenitor cells at the base of the hair follicle. These cells, in turn, transform into the various components of the growing hair.
When our hair grows, pigments are continuously being incorporated, which results in our unique hair color. The cells responsible for this process are the pigment-producing melanocytes at the base of the hair follicle.
In normal hair growth, the follicle produces hair at a rate of around 1 centimeter per month for several years.
But all the cells in our body become increasingly damaged during our lifetime, and these melanocytes are eventually lost. When all the melanocytes are lost in a particular hair follicle, the next hair that grows will be gray or white.
The biology of hair growth is rather complex, with a multitude of specialized cells involved in hair follicle structure and function. Scientists continue to unravel the process of human hair growth and pigmentation.
What controls pigmentation?
Humans have two different types of pigment. Eumelanin is responsible for black and brown colors, while pheomelanin is responsible for orange and yellow.
Genes determine the mixture of pigments…